Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology 2022-12-02T07:23:00+00:00 Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRRE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Endocrinology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Cushing’s disease arising from a Clinically Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma after Cranial Trauma: A Case Report 2022-08-31T09:36:12+00:00 Mouna Elleuch Dhoha Ben Salah Asma Zargni Nadia Charfi Mouna Mnif Nabila Rekik Mohamed Abid <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Silent corticotrope adenomas are a subtype of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas that exceptionally differentiate into functioning adenomas due to multiple causes.</p> <p><strong>Case Report: </strong>A 42 years old man was referred to the department of Endocrinology in Hedi Chaker hospital in March 2021 with an incidental finding of pituitary adenoma. He had a history of traumatic brain injury 3 months earlier. Initial biochemical assays showed normal pituitary function. In September 2021, he was admitted to our department after showing florid Cushing’s disease features with severe hypokalemia. Hormonal dosages showed the lack of suppression of cortisol at the suppression tests with high levels of ACTH. The patient underwent pituitary surgery and a recovery was noted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This is a rare case of silent corticotrope macroadenoma which became hyper secreting after a cranial trauma. Although the nature of the change which occurred in this tumor remains uncertain, it’s important to identify and follow closely the patient with such tumors because of the risk of evolution to a functional adenoma.</p> 2022-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diabetes Insipidus: A Report of Three Cases in a Tertiary Health Facility in North Western Nigeria 2022-10-12T08:06:14+00:00 Halima Haladu Taiwo Oloyede Raliyatu Habibu Aliyu Bashiru Yusuf Taofeek Oloyede Sanda Abdullah Naimatu A. T. Abdullahi Bashir Taiye Aminu Nwawueze AndrewOkonta Hakeem Gbadamosi <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst (polydipsia) and passage of a large volume of dilute urine (polyuria).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The report was a case study involving three subjects from the Federal Teaching Hospital Kastina, Nigeria. Subjects were aged 20, 21 and 10years. All presented with polydipsia and polyuria. A clinical assessment was done. Investigations include routine laboratory and radiological assessments, thyroid function tests, blood glucose, 24hrs urine quantification, water deprivation test, and brain MRI were done among others.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Two cases had primary complaints of polydipsia and polyuria while one was secondary to head trauma. All preliminary routine investigations were essentially normal. 24-hour urine collection of 18.6 litres (134mOsmol/kg), 9.6 litres (292.6mOsm/kg) and 6.9 litres (250mOsmol/kg) were reported in cases 1,2 &amp; 3 respectively. The urine deprivation test shows a less than 50% increase in urinary osmolality after administration of DDVAP in cases 1&amp; 2, while the urinary osmolality values continued to increase throughout the test period in case 3.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Partial Central Diabetes Insipidus was diagnosed in the first and second cases and were managed with desmopressin nasal spray with significant improvements. However, the third case was referred to the paediatric mental health clinic where she also responded well to treatment.</p> 2022-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Cyperus esculentus Meal on Glutathione and Sperm Parameters in Androgen-Induced Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) in Adult Male Wistar Rats 2022-08-31T09:36:12+00:00 D. I. Izunwanne D. C. Akukwu M. U. Elendu J. N. Egwurugwu A. Obialor C. C. Ofoegbu H. A. Izunwanne E. E. Ngwu G. C. Uloneme P. C. Ugwuezumba <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Large populations and diversification of food plant species have continued to play an important role in sustaining healthy lifestyles and enhancing lifespan for everybody. This becomes imperative with growing environmental population and its resultant health hazards which may affect the reproductive system. <em>Cyperus esculentus</em> may help to cure erectile dysfunction. Infertility is on the increase especially in the developing countries. However, male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this project was to study the Effect of <em>Cyperus esculentus </em>(Tiger Nut) Meal on Glutathione, Some sperm Parameters such as Semen pH, Sperm count, Sperm without a tail, sperm without head etc. and Morphological changes in Androgen-Induced Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Adult Male Wistar Rats</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of sixty (60) male rats weighing between 160 – 200 g were used in this study. They were divided into six groups of ten rats per group. Benign prostate hyperplasia was induced in three groups of the rats (as stated in methodology) with 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous injections of hormones containing dihydrotestosterone and estradiol valerate dissolved in olive oil in the ratio of 10:1 (three times in a week, one day interval). Administration of tiger nut meal commenced immediately and lasted for two months. At the end of administration, blood sample was collected from the rat via cardiac puncture for the determination of Glutathione. Semen samples were collected for analysis of semen abnormality and Cytoplasmic droplets.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Following the induction of BPH, the administration of tiger nut meal showed some positive effects on the rats. On Glutathione, the administration of the tiger nut meal increased the level of the antioxidant, glutathione, in the induced rats(P&lt;0.05). Also, on the effect of the tiger nut meal on the induced abnormalities of the sperm cells (such as sperm cells without a head and the ones without a tail) there was a significantly decreased the level of these abnormalities of the semen recorded following the induction of BPH (P&gt;0.05) while at the same time, enhancing the Sperm concentration (sperm count) (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Tiger nut meal decreased the levels of sperm cells without a head, sperm cells without a tail and that of cytoplasmic complete. It also showed a significant increase in the levels of sperm count, Glutathione and semen pH.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Magnesium Status in Type 2 Diabetes: Relation with Glycemic Control and Chronic Complications 2022-08-31T09:36:12+00:00 Faten Hadjkacem Hamdi Frikha Khouloud Boujelbene Feriel Ellouze Rim Marrakchi Kamel Jammoussi Mohamed Abid <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been frequently associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate Mg status in patients with T2DM using an intravenous Mg load test and to determine a correlation between Mg deficiency, glycemic control, and the occurrence of chronic complications.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> A descriptive study conducted between 2020 and 2021 in the department of Endocrinology of the Hedi Chaker Universitary Hospital of Sfax, Tunisia, including adults aged over 18 years. The Mg deficiency was defined by a Mg retention rate over 50% after Mg load test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Thirty patients were included in the study, 53% of whom were women. The average age was 57.3 ± 10 years old. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 17%. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 57% had a confirmed Mg deficiency (G1) and 43% had a normal Mg status (G2). G1 patients had a more unbalanced diabetes than G2 patients but insulin resistance was observed with a higher frequency among the latter. Both microvascular (retinopathy, microalbuminuria, diabetic neuropathy) and macrovascular (coronary heart disease, stroke, lower limb arteriopathy) complications of diabetes were observed more frequently in G1 but without statistical significance. Risk assessment using univariate and multivariate models showed that age over 55 years is associated with Mg deficiency in diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Mg deficiency is more prevalent among T2DM patients, with age over 55 years as a major risk factor. Mg deficiency is associated with a poorly balanced diabetes and the occurrence of macro and micro-vascular complications.</p> 2022-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Hamelia patens jacq. on Some Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Albino Rats 2022-08-31T09:36:13+00:00 C. Aguwamba C. J. Nwaogwugwu C. I. Nosiri M. E. Uche C. Aaron E. Ike, W.U <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medicinal plants is as old as man, they contain substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes with less toxicity. A number of these plants, leaf, herb and stem bark has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes for many years without sufficient scientific data.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Effect of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Hamelia patens</em>jacq. on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats was determined.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The experimental animals (male Albino rats) were divided randomly into six groups of eight animals each. The test groups (2-6) were starved overnight followed by intraperitoneal administration of alloxan at 160mg/kg body weight. Treatment with the plant extract was for fourteen days. Group 1 was the normal control, group 2; diabetic untreated animals, group 3 received the standard drug gliclazide at 58mg/ml, groups 4, 5 and 6 were the extract treated groups at 400mg/kg body weight, 800mg/kg body weight and 1200mg/kg body weight respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results/Discussion: </strong>The mean lethal dose of the plant extract was above 5000mg/kg body weight. Total protein increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in the extract treated groups while, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanintransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had significant decreases (P&lt;0.05) when compared to group 2. Malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in the group that received the standard drug alongside the extract treated groups when compared to group 2, while Glutathione (GSH) and Superoxide dismutase had a significant decrease in groups 2 and 3 at (P&lt;0.05) and was non significant in the extract treatedgroups at (P&gt;0.05).&nbsp; The C-peptidesincreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in groups 4 to 6 when compared to the group 2 that had a higher significant increase (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results show that aqueous leaf extract of <em>Hamelia patens</em> may possess anti-diabetic,anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antianemic, antioxidant and antilipidemic properties at the tested doses.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Assessment of In-vivo and In-silico Diabetes Healing Potentialities of Terminalia chebula against Diverse Disturbed Pathological State in Experimental Rodent Model 2022-08-31T09:36:13+00:00 Jannatul Ferdous Bushratul Jannat Sanjida Jannath Md. Mohin Uddin Md. Rafat Tahsin Faisal Ahmed Nadvi Nasiba Binte Bahar Juhaer Anjum Arifa Sultana Ishrat Jahan Fahima Aktar Jakir Ahmed Chowdhury Abu Asad Chowdhury Md. Shah Amran Shaila Kabir <p><em>Terminalia chebula </em>(<em>T. chebula</em>) is a widely used medicinal plant that possesses numerous therapeutic properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective activity. In this study, the ethanolic extract of <em>T. chebula </em>was observed to significantly improve the condition of alloxan-induced diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. A lower dose (250mg) of <em>T. chebula</em> significantly (p&lt;0.05) reversed the altered physiological states of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, but a higher dose (650mg) yielded greater therapeutic effects. A dose-dependent restoration was also recorded in the levels of SGPT, SGOT, creatinine, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received three distinct doses (low, medium, high) of the test extract. Afterward, the diabetes healing potentialities of <em>T. chebula </em>were compared to those of commercially available medications. This study revealed that different doses of ethanolic extracts of <em>T. chebula </em>fruit had similar therapeutic results in treating hyperglycemia as existing conventional medications. A ligand library of the fruits’ constituents was prepared through literature mining, and the anti-diabetic activities of the ligands and their ADMET properties were assayed <em>in silico. </em>The molecular docking studies indicated that the anti-diabetic activity of the extract is likely mediated through the inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, but further research on this was deemed necessary. The current study ascertains the anti-diabetic potentialities of this medicinal plant and opines that comprehensive <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> analysis of the constituents be carried out&nbsp; to identify and further develop the actual molecules responsible for anti-diabetic activity.</p> 2022-08-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the Anti-Diabetic Potential of Ethanol Extract of Persea americana Fruit Peel (Pericarp) 2022-08-31T09:36:13+00:00 C. D. Ubani A. K. Amah K. C. Obioha M. U. Elendu <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of ethanol extract of <em>P. americana</em> fruit peel (Pericarp). Peel obtained from ripe avocado fruits was thoroughly washed with clean tap water, dried at room temperature before being ground to fine powder after which extract was developed. Fifteen (15) adult male wistar rats were divided into three (3) groups of five (5) rats each. <strong>Group I</strong> was the normal control fed rat chow and water <em>ad-libtum</em>, <strong>Group II</strong> was the diabetic control and was not treated with the extract, while <strong>Group III</strong> was diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg of <em>P. americana</em> fruit peel extract for 21 days. Blood glucose level was determined weekly through standard procedures. The results obtained revealed that administration of alloxan monohydrate significantly (P&lt;0.05) raised blood glucose level in rats. However, administration of <em>P. americana</em> fruit peel extract significantly (P&lt;0.05) reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats. In conclusion, this works established the anti-diabetic potential of the fruit peel of <em>P. americana</em>.</p> 2022-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Sex Hormone Levels in HIV Serodiscordant Couples in Jos, Nigeria 2022-09-02T09:50:45+00:00 Duru Boniface Nnamdi Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka Onah Christian Ejike Onyema-iloh Obiageli Bridget Amaifeobu Clement <p>This was a cross sectional study design to assess the sex hormone levels in HIV serodiscordant couples in Jos, Nigeria. A total of 20 discordant serodiscordant HIV couples (40 patients) and 20 controls (40 non HIV couples) aged between 18 and 49 years were included in the study. 5ml of fasting venous blood sample was collected from each participant into plain containers for the evaluation of sex hormones levels. Female samples were taken two weeks prior to menstruation (follicular phase). Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), progesterone, estrogen/estradiol (E<sub>2</sub>), and Testosterone (TT) were determined by using standard ELISA technique. The results revealed that while there was no statistically significant difference in the mean serum levels of LH, Testosterone, progesterone, or estradiol between the HIV serodiscordant couples and the control group (p&gt;0.05), FSH level in the HIV serodiscordant couples was significantly lower than in the control group (7.84±7.39 Vs 10.62±4.19; p=0.042). However, gender comparison showed that FSH, LH and progesterone levels in the male and female HIV discordant groups were not significantly different from those in the male and female control groups, respectively (p&gt;0.05). TT level was significantly lower while E<sub>2</sub> was higher in the male HIV discordant group than in the male control group (p=0.000) whereas E<sub>2</sub> level was significantly lower in the female HIV discordant group than in the female control group (p=0.000). Furthermore, the mean serum TT levels was significantly lower in the male exposed HIV seronegative individuals compared to male control (p=0.000) while progesterone level was significantly lower in the male HIV seropositives than in the male control (p=0.021) as well as in the male exposed HIV seronegative individuals compared to the male HIV seropositive individuals (p=0.000). This study revealed significant alterations in the sex hormone levels in HIVserodiscordant couples and this requires further studies with larger sample size to ascertain the current findings.</p> 2022-09-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Influencing Patients’ Adherence to Medication Therapy for Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in the WA Municipality of the Upper West Region, Ghana 2022-10-22T09:58:42+00:00 Elizabeth Gyabea Twumasi Sixtus Bieranaye Bayaa Martin Saana Ahmed Wahab Obeng Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi Frederick William Akuffo Owusu <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition that comes with life-threatening long-term complications due to defected Beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans; hence, adherence to medication plays a pivotal role to achieve a longer life expectancy among a population.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study is to determine the factors that influence patients’ adherence to their anti-diabetic medication therapy within the Wa Municipality.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study conducted in four health centers within the Wa Municipality between March to August 2022. Eighty diabetic patients using the Andrew Fisher’s formula at 95% confidence interval were randomly selected, (35 men and 45 women; aged 15 years and above) administered questionnaires and the data obtained was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 77.5% of participants adhered to their anti-diabetic medications while 22.5% did not adhere to their medications. Reasons cited for non-adherence included; lack of finance, feeling of drug being ineffective, taking a break from their antidiabetic medication after long periods of time, and also forgetting their medication while traveling.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most of the participants adhered to their anti-diabetic medication therapy whiles factors such as lack of finance, forgetfulness, individual myths/beliefs, and inconsistent dosage regimen contributed to non-adherence.</p> 2022-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Knowledge, Practice, and Complications of Insulin-Self Injection among a Representative Sample of Diabetic Patients in Southern Tunisia 2022-10-26T07:58:18+00:00 Yosra Mejdoub Nouha Ketata Dhoha Ben Salah Samira Jerbi Hana Charfi Feten Hadj Kacem Sourour Yaich Jamel Damak Jihen Jdidi Fatma Mnif Nabila Rekik Mouna Elleuch Mohamed Abid <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Our study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of Tunisian diabetic patients regarding insulin-self-injecting and to determine insulin-injection complication as well as their independent factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It was a cross sectional study using investigator-administered-questionnaires among insulin self-injecting patients with DM attending Tunisian Endocrinology department on April 2021. Information regarding knowledge and practices relating to injection Technik and its complications were assessed by the insulin Injection-Technique-Questionnaire (ITQ).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 96 diabetic patients were included in the study. The median age was45 years with IQR=[36-60] years. There were 53(55.2%) subjects with diabetes type 1. Median insulin seniority was 10 years; IQR=[5-20] years. Prevalence of insulin-induced lipodystrophy among patients examined by healthcare worker was 55%. Independent factors of detected lipodystrophy were HBA1C level&gt;10% (AOR=22), family history of diabetes (AOR=0.02), using warmed insulin (AOR=0.08), skin disinfection (AOR=0.005) and skin fold before injection (AOR=0.04). Prevalence of bleeding after injections was 87.5% (n=84). Its independent factors were skipping injections (AOR=27.6), HBA1C level&gt;10% (AOR=10.6), seniority of diabetes&gt;10 years (AOR=41.2) and history of chronic disease (AOR=15.4). Prevalence of pain while injecting was 54.2%. Independent factors of injection pain were having surgical history (AOR=20.2), dyslipidaemia (AOR=19), urban area (AOR=0.021), family history of diabetes (AOR=0.075) and insulin seniority&gt;12 years (AOR=0.086). Leakage or backflow of insulin from skin was reported by 44 patients (45.8%). Its independent factors were dyslipidaemia (AOR=10.7), unmarried patients (AOR=4.7) and obese patients (AOR=0.1).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A poor level of knowledge as well as frequent insulin-injection-complications were observed. Thus, healthcare-providers should pay more attention to therapeutic education on insulin treatment.</p> 2022-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An in silico Investigation of Dicholorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) as a Potential Endocrine Disrupting Chemical 2022-11-04T06:57:45+00:00 M. H. Abdullahi C. J. Ononamadu G. S. Haruna Z. Hassana <p>This study aimed at investigating the endocrine disruption tendency of the isomers and derivatives of DDTs <em>in silico </em>through the methodology and instrumentality of molecular docking and online softwares, appropriate ligands and receptors were selected from online bioinformatics database. The result shows that the derivatives of Estrogen receptor beta (1QKM) such as Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (o,p'_DDE) (-8.1077), Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (m,p'_DDD) (-7.5605), Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'_ DDD or Rhothane) (-7.4761) had higher binding energy relative to the parent molecule Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o, o’-DDT) (-5.9572) and also as compared to the control, Genistein (-8.0746) and Bisphenol A ( -6.5464), Methoxychlor (-7.8910). For its derivatives of Estrogen receptor alpha (17xR); Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,o'_DDT) (-7.76949), Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (o,p'_DDE) (-7.2949) had higher binding energy relative to the parent molecule Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o, o’-DDT) (-7.7649) and also as compared to the control Dihydrotestosterone (-8.2092), Genistein (-7.1892) and Bisphenol A (-6.8010). For its derivatives of Androgen receptor alpha (2AMA), Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (m,p''_DDD) (-7.76949),&nbsp; had higher binding energy relative to the parent molecule DDT and also as compared to the control Dihydrotestosterone (-6.7349). Since the derivatives had high binding energy which also translates to high affinity, it suggests that they can be potential endocrine disrupting chemicals.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prostate Specific Antigen Level in Diabetic Men at Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria 2022-11-09T05:41:47+00:00 A. I. Ekwempu Ngozi Brisibe D. B. Yakubu N. Vwamdem A. A. Onuigbo <p>The biomarker called Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is frequently employed for the early identification of prostate cancer. Numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health factors have been demonstrated to affect PSA levels in blood, therefore when interpreting test results, care should be taken to take these factors into consideration. The focus of this study is to evaluate the impact of Diabetes on PSA level in relation to their demographic characteristics. The study was conducted among 63 male subjects attending Bingham University Teaching Hospital (BHUTH). Subjects were classified into diabetic and non-diabetic groups (control group). The subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected and 3mls of blood was collected for PSA analysis using ELISA technique. In diabetic group, there was no significant difference in PSA level in each of the demographic parameters studied, p-value&gt;0.05. In non-diabetic group, there was a significant difference in PSA level among the groups in Educational status, p-value=0.011 while other demographies did not report any significant change, p-value&gt;0.05. There was no significant difference in PSA level between diabetic and non-diabetic groups, p-value&gt;0.05. This study has shown Diabetes and demographic presentations have no effect on PSA level but educational status impacts on PSA level in normal individuals.</p> 2022-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Older Age Diabetes in Rural Area of North-West Region of Bangladesh 2022-12-02T07:23:00+00:00 Ripon Biswas Sazin Islam Mosammat Sabrina Sibli Deep Chowdhury Oasim Ghosh Sharmin Akter Md. Shariful Islam <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bangladesh's north-west region consistently has worse health results than the rest of the nation. Many chronic illnesses, including diabetes, which is the seventh biggest cause of mortality in Bangladesh, fall under this category. This research compared the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older persons living in rural Bangladesh's north-west region.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Public Use Files for Medicare Beneficiaries (September 2020), which offer county level prevalence for diabetes as well as a number of other diseases among beneficiaries of Medicare fee-for-service, were used to extract data for the year 2018. Using a binomial regression, differences in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> When compared to the Urban reference group in the final model, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was marginally lower in the rural group (PR: 0.98 [95% CI: 0.97-1.00]).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is possible that the diagnostic prevalence of diabetes in an older adult population starts to level off due to diabetes' earlier onset. Lack of access to care in rural areas is another reason why there was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between these groups.</p> 2022-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Endocrine Dysfunctions in Renal Tubular Disorders 2022-08-31T09:36:12+00:00 Nelisa Rodriquez Sai Erambalur Sarah Izuchukwu Adijat Oyewole Daniel Okundaye Adedeji Okikiade Damisola Ogunesan <p>This is a review article with narratives on a rare discussion of existence of hormonal dysfunctions in variants of renal tubular acidosis (RTA), acquired and congenital renal tubular disorders, with focus on the molecular and physiological defects. The renal tubules primarily function in excretion of hydrogen ions and filtration of bicarbonates, and any form of damage may interfere with this functions and subsequently lead to chronic kidney disease. There are myriads of causes of renal tubular disease with subsequent development of hormonal abnormalities. The aim is to explore existing literatures and knowledge in understanding the hormonal changes associated with various renal tubular disorders, highlighting different renal tubular disorders like Fanconi’s syndrome, Liddle’s disease, Barter’s syndrome, and Gittelman’s syndrome, elucidate the molecular and pathophysiological basis of various renal tubular disorders and associated endocrine disorders. Articles/literatures’ are selected using keywords below and searching various literatures and books on the internets for common renal tubular disorders. This is part of students project aim to teach and improves integration and interactive learning process in Pathophysiology.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Combination of Sodium-glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor: A Complementary Approach to Diabetes Management 2022-08-31T09:36:13+00:00 Arif A. Faruqui <p>Diabetes mellitus is a consequence of multiple underlying pathophysiologies. India ranks second in the world with 77 million diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The unmet need of achieving the targeted glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) goal along with increased patient compliance is associated with development of novel treatment options, for the diabetes care on individual basis. Diabetes being multifaceted disorder, combination therapy becomes key option either at initiation or later part of the treatment. A “pathophysiological approach” using combination therapy with agents addressing the known defects in T2DM seems more rational. A synergistic and rational fixed dose combination of a Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i), may address these unmet needs. SGLT2i by increasing glucose excretion through urine reduces reduce hyperglycemia. SGLT2i works independent of insulin secretion or action. DPP4i improves glucose homeostasis by inhibiting the breakdown of active incretin hormones, increasing insulin secretion and decreasing hepatic glucose production in a glucose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination is safe and effective with reduced side-effects such as genito-urinary tract infection. DPP-4i and SGLT2i fulfill provides corresponding mechanism of action when combined can achieve significant glycemic control in patients with T2DM, with a reduced adverse events and cardiovascular protection. The current review provides insights on this combination along with clinical evidences for safety and efficacy and guidance on the use of the combination.</p> 2022-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Atherogenic Diabetic Dyslipidemia 2022-09-13T09:30:22+00:00 Dheeraj Kapoor Ruchi Kapoor Kunal Jhaveri <p>Diabetes is a widely prevalent condition and steadily growing as well. In Indian type 2 diabetic patients have a higher amounts of TG and atherogenic lipid sd-LDL. Atherogenic diabetic dyslipidemia is associated with higher residual CV risk and should be treated with a statin as first-line agent. The tendency to develop insulin resistance is a common result of Asian Indians' body composition and dyslipidemia. Diabetic dyslipidemia (DD) is defined by a mild to marked increase in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and VLDL-C remnants, and low HDL levels. Along with lifestyle modifications, statins are considered as first-line therapy for diabetic dyslipidemia. Statins have the ability to reduce LDL-C levels by up to 50%. They might improve TG and HDL-C levels further.</p> 2022-09-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##