A New Algorithm in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules
Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology,
The most important problems in the follow-up of thyroid nodules are missing cancer cases or performing unnecessary thyroidectomy.
The aim of this study is to create a more sensitive, risk free and cost-effective algorithm in the follow-up of thyroid nodules. For this purpose, the current methods used in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules were examined in our study.
As a method to achieve our aim in our study; based on the results of current studies on this subject, noninvasive serum molecular marker diagnosis methods, which have been shown to be superior to invasive biopsy methods in the diagnosis of thyroid cancers in terms of sensitivity, risk and cost, were given priority over invasive biopsy methods in the algorithm and as a result, in this new algorithm; it has been demonstrated that the possibility of missed thyroid cancer cases may be less, and unnecessary surgeries can be prevented at a lower cost.
However, to come to a definitive conclusion about this, our model should be applied in large case series and results should be compared with others.
- Thyroid nodules
- thyroid cancers
- algorithm for thyroid nodules
How to Cite
Pinchot SN, Al-Wagih H, Schaefer S, Sippel R, Chen H: Aspiration biopsy for predicting neoplasm or carcinoma in thyroid nodules 4 cm or larger. Arch Surg. 2009;144(7):649-655. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.2009.116
Giles WH, Maclellan RA, Gawande AA, Ruan DT, Alexander EK, Moore FD, et al. False negative cytology in large thyroid nodules. Ann surg Oncol. 2015;22:152-157. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-014-3952-7
Raad RA, Prasad M, Baldassari R, Schofield K, Callender GG, Chhieng D, et al. The value of negative diagnosis in thyroid fine-needle aspiration: A retrospective study with histologic follow-up. Endocr Pathol. 2018;29:269-275. DOI: 10.1007/s12022-018-9536-5.
Yoon JH, Hee YK, Min JM, Kim J, Kim EK: The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the sonographic differences between benign and malign thyroid nodules 3 cm or larger. Thyroid. 2011;21(9):993-1000. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2010.0458.
Choi SH, Han KH, Yoon JH, Moon HJ, Son EJ, Youk JH, et al. Factors affecting inadequate sampling of ultrasound‐guided fine‐needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol. 2011;74(6):776-782. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04011.x.
Ospina NS, Brito JP, Maraka S, De Ycaza AEE, Gutierrez RR, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid malignancy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocrine. 2016;53:651-661. DOI: 10.1007/s12020-016-0921-x.
Kuo SF, Chao TC, Chang HY, Chung CH, Yang H, Lin JD: Prognostic evaluation of patients with multicentric papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;110(8):511-517. Available:http://www.jfma-online.com
Alshaikh S, Harb Z, Aljufairi E, Almahari SA: Classification of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology into Bethesda categories: An institutional experience and review of the literature. Cytojournal. 2018;15(4). DOI: 10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_32_17
Laborier E, Shifrin A, Busseniers AE, Lupo MA, Mangenelli ML, Andruss B, et al. Molecular testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on fine-needle aspiration improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(7):2743-2750. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2015-1158.
Duick DS, Klopper JP, Diggans JC, Friedman L, Kennedy GC, Lanman RB, et al. The impact of benign gene expression classifier test results on the endocrinologist–patient decision to operate on patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration cytopathology. Thyroid. 2012;22(10):996-1001. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2012.0180.
Dedhia PH, Rubio GA, Cohen MS, Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hughes DT: Potential effects of molecular testing of indeterminate thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration biopsy on thyroidectomy. World J Surg. 2014;38:634-638. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-013-2430-x.
Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R, Duick DS, Valcavi R, Hegedüs L and Vitti P: AACE/AME/ETA Task force on thyroid nodules: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules: executive summary of recommendations. JEndocrinolInvest. 2010;33:287-291. DOI: 10.3275/7048
Salajegheh A, Pakneshan S, Rahmen A, Dolan-Evans E, Zhang S, Kwong E, et al. Co-regulatory potential of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in thyroid carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2013;44(10)2204-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2013.04.014.
Gong L, Chen P, Liu X, Han Y, Zhou Y, Zhang W, et al. Expressions of D2-40, CK19, galectin-3, VEGF and EGFR in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Gland Surg. 2012;1(1):25-32. DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2227-684X.2012.03.02
Wolinski K, Stangierski A, Szczpanek-Parulska E, Gurgul E, Budny B, Wrotkowska E, et al. Thyroid marker of malignancy superior to VEGF-A in the differencial diagnostics of thyroid lesions. Plos One. 2016;11(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0150124
Luo H, Li J, Yang T, Wang J: Expressions and significance of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Otorhinolaryngol Head and Neck Surg. 2009;23(12):531-534. PMID: 19771906
Hayashi T, Hirokawa M, Higuchi M, Kudo T, Ito Y, Miyauchi A: Needle tract implantation following fine-needle aspiration of thyroid cancer. World J Surg. 2020;44:378-384. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-019-05161-1.
Nandedkar SS, Dixit M, Malukani K, Varma AV, Gambhir S:Evaluation of thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration cytology according to Bethesta system and its histopathological correlation. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2018;8(2):76-82. DOI: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_169_17.
Rezai M, Khamanah AM, Zarghami N, Vosoughi A, Hashemzadeh S: Evaluating pre- and post-operation plasma miRNAs of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients in comparison to benign nodules. BMC Cancer. 2019;19(690)1-9. DOI: 10.1186/s12885-019-5849-0.
Zhiyan W, Jinru LV, Xuan Z, Zebo H, Zhang H, Liu Q, et al. A three plasma microRNA signature for papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis in Chinese patients. Gene. 2019; 693:37-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2019.01.016.
Zhang Y, Xu D, Pan Z, Chen M, Han J, Zhang S, et al. Dynamic monitoring of circulating microRNAs as a predictive biomarker for the diagnosis and recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Oncol Lett. 2017;13(6):4252-4266. DOI: 10.3892/ol.2017.6028.
Fan CM, Wang JP, Tang YY, Zhao J, He SY, Xiong F, Guo C, et al. circMAN1A2 could serve as a novel serum biomarker for malignant tumors. Cancer Sci. 2019;110(7):2180-2188. DOI: 10.1111/cas.14034.
Li J, Li H, Xiaoting Lv, Yang Z, Gao M, Bi Y et al. Diagnostic performance of circular RNAs in human cancers: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019;7(7): e00749. DOI: 10.1002/mgg3.749
Moon WJ, Baek JH, Jung SL, Kim DW, Kim EK, Kim JY, et al. Ultrasonography and the ultrasound-based management of thyroid nodules: Consensus statement and recommendations. Korean J Radiol. 2011;12(1):1-14. DOI: 10.3348/kjr.2011.12.1.1.
Rosario PW, Silva AL, Borges MAR, Calsolari MR: Is Doppler ultrasound of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules? Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1)79-83. DOI: 10.1590/2359-3997000000014.
Razavi SA, Hadduck TA, Sadigh G, Dwamena BA: Comparative effectiveness of elastographic and b-mode ultrasound criteria for diagnostic discrimination of thyroid nodules: A meta-analysis. Neuroradiol. /Head and Neck Imaging. 2013;200(6)1317-1326. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.12.9215.
Cantisani V, Maceroni P, Andrea VD, Patrizi G, Segni MD, Vito CD et al. Strain ratio ultrasound elastography increases the accuracy of colour-Doppler ultrasound in the evaluation of Thy-3 nodules. A bi-centre university experience. Eur Radiol. 2016;26: 1441-1149. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-015-3956-0.
Horvath E, Silva CF, Majlis S, Rodriguez I, Skoknic V, Castro A, et al. Prospective validation of the ultrasound based TIRADS (Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data System) classification: Results in surgically resected thyroid nodules. Eur Radiol. 2016;27:2619-2628. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-016-4605-y.
Liu B, Liang J, Zheng Y, Xie X, Huang G, Zhou L, et al. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography as promising diagnostic tool for predicting malignant thyroid nodules: A prospective single-centre experience. Eur Radiol. 2015;25: 624-634. DOI: 10.1007/s00330-014-3455-8.
Chug CL, Tan HC, Too CW, Lim WY, Chiam PPS, Zhu L, et al. Diagnostic performance of ATA, BTA and TIRADS sonographic patterns in the prediction of malignancy in histologically proven thyroid nodules. Singapore Med J. 2018;59(11):578-583. DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2018062.
Li H, Robinson KA, Anton B, Saldanha IJ, Ladenson PW: Cost –effectiveness of a novel molecular test for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(11):1719- 1726. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-0459.
Gomez CC, Vega S, Dominguez LC, Osorio C: Total thyroidectomy versus hemi thyroidectomy for patients with follicular neoplasm. A cost-utility analysis. Int J Surg. 2014;12(8):837-842. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.07.005.
Bates MF, Lamas MR, Randle RW, Long KL, Pitt SC, Schneider DF, Sippel RS: Back so soon? – Is early recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer really just persistent disease? Surgery. 2018;163(1):118-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2017.05.028.
Lin JD, Chao TC, Hsueh C, Kuo SF: High recurrent rate of multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16(9):2609-2616. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-009-0565-7.
Eng OS, Potdevin L, Davidov T,Lu SE, Chen C, Trooskin SZ: Does nodule size predict the compressive symptoms in patients with thyroid nodules? Gland Surg. 2014;3(4).232-236. DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2227-684X.2014.08.03.
Acar H, Özer N: What is the Impact of Serum Molecular Markers on the Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancers? A Comparison of Serum Molecular Markers with Invasive Biopsy Methods.Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology.2021;4(2):32-41.
Abstract View: 219 times
PDF Download: 104 times