Serum Testosterone Level and Obesity

Main Article Content

Zarchi Theint Theint Hlaing

Abstract

Obesity has been proposed to affect male fertility both directly and indirectly, by inducing hormonal profiles. Male factor infertility is associated with a higher incidence of obesity. The link between obesity and low testosterone levels is found in men at all ages, even in young men and teenagers. The relationship between obesity and testosterone level in men is complex and bidirectional. This article is aimed to share the information about the cause and effect of obesity on serum testosterone level.

Keywords:
Male, obesity, serum testosterone level

Article Details

How to Cite
Hlaing, Z. T. T. (2019). Serum Testosterone Level and Obesity. Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology, 2(2), 1-8. Retrieved from http://journalajrre.com/index.php/AJRRE/article/view/30099
Section
Minireview Article

References

Wilson C, Maass R, Estrada M. Cardiovascular effects of androgens. Basic and Clinical Endocrinology; Up-to-Date. University of Chile; 2015.

Barrett KE, Barman SM, Biotano S, Brooks HL. Ganong’s review of medical physiology, 24th edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, USA; 2012.

Driscoll I, Resnick SM. Testosterone and cognition in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007;4:33-45.

Pasquali R, Macor C, Vicennati V, Novo F, De Lasio R, Mesini P, Boschi S, Casimirri F, Vettor R. Effects of acute hyperinsulinamia on testosterone serum concentrations in adult obese and normal weight men. J Meta 1997;46:526-529.

Pasquali R, Casimiri F, Cantobelli S, Melchionda N, Morselli LAM, Fabbri R, Capelli M, Bortoluzzi L. Effect of obesity and body fat distribution on sex hormones and insulin in men. Journal of Metabolism. 1991;40:101-104.

Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Lower endogenous androgens predict central adiposity in men. Ann Epidemiol. 1992;2: 675-682.

Vaidya D, Dobs A, Gapster SM, Golden SH, Cashman M, Liu K. Association of baseline sex hormone levels with baseline and longitudinal changes in waist to hip ratio: Multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. Int J Obes. 2012;10:3.

Isidori AM, Caprio M, Strollo F, Moretti C, Frajese G, Isidori A. Leptin and androgen in male obesity: Evidence for leptin contribution to reduced androgen levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(10):3673-3680.

Fogari R, Preti P, Zoppi A, Fogari E, Rinaldi A, Corradi L, Mugellini A. Serum testosterone levels and arterial blood pressure in the elderly. Hypertension Research. 2005;28(8):625-630.

Osuna JA, Omez-Perez RG, Arata-Bellabarba G, Villaroel V. Relationship between BMI, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, leptin, insulin and insulin resistance in obese men. Arch Androl. 2006;52(5):355-361.

Aggerholm AS, Thulstrup AM, Toft G. Is overweight a risk factor for reduced semen quality and altered serum sex hormone profile? Fertil Steril. 2008;90:619–626.

Dhindsa S, Michael G, McWhirter CL, Mager DE, Ghanim H, Chaudhuri A and Dandona P. Testosterone concentrations in diabetic and non-diabetic obese men. Epidemiology/ Health Services Research. 2010;33(6):1186-1192.

Allan CA, Peverill R, Strauss EA, McLachlan RI. Waist-to-height ratio as a predictor of serum testosterone in aging men with symptoms of androgen deficiency. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:424-431.

Khan I, Kant C, Sammaria A. Assessment of hypogonadism with reference to clinical features and serum testosterone levels in Asian-Indian male type 2 diabetes. Indian J of Clin Pract. 2012;23(2):92-98.

Shoujun S, Pingping L, Yifei D, Hai S, Xiaoshu C. Plasma testosterone levels in male hypertensive patients and the influence on vascular endothelial function. JACC. 2013;64:16.

Bekaert M, Nieuwenhove YV, Calders P, Cuvelier CA, Batens A,Kaufman J, Ouwens DM, Ruige JB. Determinants of testosterone levels in human male obesity. Endocrine. 2015;50:202-211.

Zarchi Theint Theint Hlaing, et al. Serum testosterone level and corrected QT interval (QTc) in non-obese and obese adult male subjects. EC Cardiol. 2018; 5(11):805-817.

Wozniak SE, Gee LL, Wachtel MS, Frezza EE. Adipose tissue: The new endocrine organ? Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54: 1847-1856.

Ahima RS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Obes. 2006;14(5):242-251.

Pelusi C, Pasquali R. The significance of low testosterone levels in obese men. Curr Obes Rep. 2012;1:181-190.

Russell SH, Small CJ, Stanley SA, Franks S, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. The in vitro role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. Neuroendocrinology. 2001; 13:296-301.

Watanobe H, Hayakawa Y. Hypothalamic interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, but not interleukin-6, mediate the endotoxin-induced suppression of the reproductive axis in rats. J Endocrinol. 2003;144:4868-4943.

Guzik TJ, Mangalat D, Korbut R. Adipokines- novel link between inflammation and vascular function? J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;57:505-533.

Amery CM, Nattrass M. Fatty acids and insulin secretion. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2000;2:213-234.

Gautier A, Bonnet F, Dubois S, Massart C, Grosheny C, Bachelot A. Association between visceral adipose tissue, inflamma-tion and sex steroid concentrations in men. Clin Endocrinol Endocrinol. 2013;78(3): 373-378.

Schneider G, Kirschner MA, Berkowitz R, Ertel NH. Increased estrogen production in obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979; 48(4):633-638.

Giagulli VA, Kaufman JM, Vermeulen A. Pathogenesis of decreased androgen levels in obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;79:997-1000.

Pitteloud N, Dwyer AA, Cruz S, Lee H, Boepple PA, Crowley WF. The relative role of gonadal sex steroids and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency in the regulation of follicular-stimulating hormone secretion in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2686-2692.

Jones TM, Fang VS, Landau RL, Rosenfield R. Direct inhibition of Leydig cell function by estradiol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978;47:1368-1373.

Morales V, Santana P, Diaz R, Tabraue C, Gallardo G, Blanco FL, Hernandez I, Fanjul LF, Ruiz de Galarreta CM. Intratesticular delivery of tumor necrosis factor- α and ceramide directly abrogates steridogenic acute regulatory protein expression and leydig cell steriodogenesis in adult rats. Endocrinol. 2003;144(11): 4763-4772.

Pitteloud N, Hardin M, Dwyer AA, Valassi M, Yialamas M, Elahi D, Hayes FJ. Increasing insulin resistance is associated with a decreased in leydig cell testosterone secretion in men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005;90(5):2636-2641.

Ishikawa T, Fujioka H, Ishimura T, Takenaka A, Fujisawa M. Expression of leptin and leptin receptor in the testis of fertile and infertile patients. Andrologia. 2007;39(1):22-27.

Cioffi JA, Shafer AW, Zupancic TJ. Novel B219/OB receptor isoform: Possible role of leptin in haematopoiesis and reproduction. Nat Med; 1996.

Caprio M, Isidori AM, Carta AR, Moretti C, Dufau ML, Fabbri A. Expression of functional leptin receptors in rodent leydig cells. Endocrinol. 1999;140(11):4939-4947.

Tena-Sempere M, Pinilla L, Gonzalez LC, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF, Aguilar E. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testes in vitro. J Endocrinol. 1999; 161:211-218.

Pasquali R, Vicennati V, Gambineri A and Pagotto U. Sex-dependent role of glucocorticoids and androgens in the pathophysiology of human obesity. Int J Obes. 2008;32:1764-1779.

Feeley R and Saad F. The dark side of testosterone review deficiency: metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction. Androl 2009;30(1):10-22.

Skorupskaite K, George JT, Anderson RA. The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease. Hum Reprod Update. 2014;20:485-500.

Bullen V, Judge S. The impact of obesity on male fertility. Bri J Obes. 2015;1:99-107.

Pergola GD. The adipose tissue metabolism: Role of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone. Int J Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(2):59-63.

Chen Z, Maricic M, Nguyen P, Ahmann FR, Bruhn R, Dalkin BL. Low bone density and high percentage of body fat among men who were treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;95:2136-2144.

Smith MR, Finkelstein JS, McGovern FJ, Zietman AL, Fallon MA, Schoenfeld DA, Kantoff PW. Changes in body composition during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:599-603.

Yassin AA, Doros G. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men results in sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss. Clin Obes. 2013;3:73-83.

Xu X, De Pergola G, Bjorntorp P. Testosterone increases lipolysis and the number of β-adrenergic receptors in male rat adipocytes. Endocrinology. 1991;128: 379-382.

De Pergola G, Xu X, Yang S, Giorgino R, Bjorntorp P. Upregulation of androgen receptor binding in male rat fat pad adipose precursor cells exposed to testosterone: Study in a whole cell assay system. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990; 37:553- 558.

Bouloumie A, Valet P, Dauzats M, Lafontan M, Saulnier-Blache JS. In vivo upregulation of adipocyte alpha 2-adrenoceptors by androgens is consequence of direct action on fat cells. Am J Physiol. 1994;4(1):926-957.

Hansson P, Saggerson D, Nilsson-Ehle P. Sex difference in triglyceride/fatty acid substrate cycling of rat adipose tissue: Indirect regulation by androgens. Horm Metab Res. 1991;23:465-468.

Iverius PH, Brunzell JD. Relationship between lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma sex steroid levels in obese men. J Clin Invest. 1988;82:1106-1112.

Rebuffe-Scrive M, Marin P, Bjorntorp P. Effect of testosterone on abdominal adipose tissue in men. Int J Obes. 1991; 15:791-795.

Marin P, Oden A, Bjorntorp P. Assimilation and mobilization of triglycerides in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue in vivo in men: Effects of androgens. J Clin Endocr Metab. 1995;80: 239-243.

Stoch SA, Parker RA, Chen L, Bubley G, Ko YJ, Vincelette A, Greenspan SL. Bone loss in men with prostate cancer treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86:2787-2791.